Natural resource access rights and land tenure are among the top challenges facing REDD+ and other landscape management initiatives. Frequently, forest and farmland tenure is strongly contested and/or very unclear. Both colonial and post-colonial governments have sought to expand their control over timber, agricultural land and minerals. The result has been the suppression and sometimes extinguishment of traditional tenure systems. Where they persist, customary rights and tenure systems often go unrecognized and carry little to no force in modern legal systems. Traditional landholders may be left feeling like trespassers in their own homes.