The Bioeconomy concept emerged in recent years as a silver bullet to halt deforestation, promote economic growth and reduce poverty in the Amazon. Despite this enthusiasm, there is little clarity about what exactly bioeconomy means. In this session, we invite voices from across the Amazonian region to reflect with us, including representatives from Indigenous communities, youth, entrepreneurs, academics and policymakers. Is there in fact one Amazonian bioeconomy? What are the most effective paths to promote socioenvironmental development in the Amazon?